In this second of a series of essays, Fr Dan Donovan begins his exploration of the game that is being played with changes to the English Mass text and the overtures being made to conservative Anglicans. It's almost two commentaries in one as the footnotes are as informative as the commentary itself.
The "New" English Mass Text: a tool to re-evangelise the Church?
Ms Livingstone's article on the "new" Missal has all the hallmarks of a motor salesperson who promotes his/her product by denigrating other brands thus her dismissal of the various liturgical and catechetical initiatives in the years following Vatican II by the cynical and inept phrase "...in the spirit of the council". Such a sweeping indictment of the reforms of Vatican II has all the limitations of any sweeping statement. The new translation is praised as possessing "quality and rigour" which of course still remains to be seen. The praise of Arthur Roche (Bishop of Leeds), head of the "new ICEL" inspired a Google search on this "so-with-it prelate," only to find that the people of Leeds have a petition of "no confidence" in the selfsame bishop. This petition has been circulated to the Papal Nuncio and the Congregation of the Clergy claiming that Bishop Roche "did not listen" to his people."
Cardinal Pell criticises the Vatican II Missal as "dumbed down and colloquial". However it is surprising that Cardinal Pell had to resort to colloquial speak "dumbed down" when proffering his criticism of the content and language of a Missal which has served the Catholic community for forty years. It would appear that Cardinal Pell in his zeal to create a language of "the sacred and transcendent" has overlooked the incarnation. The author of Hebrews writes:
"In the past, God spoke in fragmentary and varied ways... but in this final age, God has spoken to us through his son." (Heb 1:1-4)
It is amazing that none of the scripture scholars who were involved in this project actually picked up on the fact that God has made his mighty deeds known through word and deed to all peoples (Acts 2:11-12). The new translation is claimed to be "more accurate" because it employs "powerful words". In the last analysis, the mystery of God is ineffable so all words will be incapable of expressing the reality worshipped irrespective of their power and for this reason, God sent his Son as the visible Word for all.
Cardinal Pell's biographer, Tess Livingstone
Then there is the matter of the "consultative" process, it would appear from the "no confidence" motion of the people of Leeds that Roche is not really into consulting. Therefore it is easy to see Ms Livingstone's confusion when she speaks of a "consultative process". However, it would be helpful had she actually provided a definition of the words then she might have discovered that "scrutinising and approving" do not actually constitute a "consultative process". It would appear that the bishops of the English language countries were not canvassed for their input into the content or style of the Missal but were asked to comment on a draft text and then a final version. If this were the case then "scrutinising and approving" would be more like steps for implementation.
Obviously, there is a range of liturgical books to be used by the Christian community in worship. These include the lectionary which is not a bible but a book of readings garnered from scripture and arranged by themes for the explicit purpose of worship. The Missal is designed for worship and as such is not a catechetical program although the community's celebration can and should be preceded and followed by time for catechetical discussion. This was always the case in the early Church where Bishops like Cyril of Jerusalem, Ambrose and Augustine met with their people in the weeks between Easter and Pentecost to explain and depth the mysteries, rites and rituals in which the community had participated. The Church never believed a truth and then expressed it in prayer but rather it prayed and from its prayer drew its belief thus "lex orandi, lex credendi". Cardinal Pell predicts that "...the people will come to love it" but this would not be the first time he has misjudged the response of the people.
"Traditional Anglicans" and the Roman Church
Ms Livingstone's article makes the point that there are a number of "traditional Anglican" parishes which are preparing to cross the Tiber and return to union with the Roman Church. While this might sound very warm and fuzzy it tends to gloss over almost six hundred years of historical and doctrinal differences between the two communities. If the reasons for the return of these "traditional Anglicans" are not more fundamental than those in the article then it would appear that this is more a foot stamping tantrum than seeking a genuine union with Rome.
The Church of England has always understood its identity as "catholic and reform" and as such provides a more liberal approach to theological investigation and reflection but this in itself should not necessarily be cause for "traditional Anglicans" to desert their tradition. Rather than seeking union with Rome, it is quite feasible that these parishes could form their own community under the Anglican umbrella which shelters evangelical, liberal, catholic and charismatic traditions. The extreme shift "across the Tiber" must be rooted in Christology rather than any ecclesiastical expediency. Should these "traditional Anglicans" find that their sensitivities offended further down the track in the Catholic Church; will they seek to return to the Anglican tradition? Or alternatively, will they become another church within the Catholic Church along the lines of Opus Dei?
Then there is the need to come to an agreement on the matter of Church authority. The "reform element" in their Anglican tradition would hold the scriptures as the ultimate authority in the Church and it is not an easy step to abandon this position to accept the role and authority of the Pope. In these days of financial problems and the declining numbers of Catholics in Western Europe there is a willingness to accommodate these religious nomads but it must always be remembered that papal authority remains a thorn in the side of many Christians from reformed traditions.
The validity of Anglican orders has historically and doctrinally caused major stumbling block between the Churches and still lacks any satisfactory resolution. The Catholic Church has re-ordained ministers who have as individuals shifted to the Roman communion and wished to be involved in ordained ministry. Therefore it would seem highly improbable that the Pope would do a deal with these "traditional Anglican" parishes whereby they could "retain their own traditional liturgies" because in recent times the Vatican has stressed transubstantiation which is claimed to safeguard the Catholic teaching that the substance of the bread and wine are changed into the body and blood of Jesus through the ministry of the validly ordained priest.
A refresher on the History of the split...
It might be helpful here to give a brief background of the sixteenth century schism which divided western Christianity and became known as the Protestant Reformation. The Reformation came to England when King Henry (1527) petitioned Pope Clement VII for an annulment of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon, on the basis that she had failed to provide him with a male heir. When Clement rejected Henry's request the King took matters into his own hands and turned to his parliament for a more agreeable decision. Henry was intent on marrying Anne Boleyn with whom he had become infatuated and making her Queen. However the process was slow as the parliament was divided with many of the clergy and lay members remaining loyal to the Pope and his jurisdiction over annulments.
Pope Clement VII
Queen Mary I
Queen Elizabeth I
Cardinal Reginald Pole
However it was not until 1532 that the parliament passed a bill entitled the Submission of the Clergy which finally, set aside Church authority in England and recognised the King as the supreme head of the Church. Henry was now free to marry Anne but the first blow had been struck in a seesawing struggle between the Church of Rome and the House of Tudor over the next thirty years, 1529-1559, and would culminate in the birth of Protestant England.
After the death of his father in 1547 the sickly Edward became King at age nine. Henry's will had provided for a regency government of sixteen men to rule for his son but Edward Seymour, a maternal uncle, seized control of the King and power. Seymour was a Protestant and so the King was encouraged "to make sweeping changes to the Church" along the lines of those suggested by the European Reformers.
During Edward's reign (1547-1552), prayers for the dead were abolished from religious practice. The clergy were encouraged to marry — and this included the bishops. The Book of Common Prayer provided a prayer book making accessible to all the people all the rites and rituals to be used in worship. The catechism was part of the Book of Common Prayer and it formed the basis of the bishop's examination of all candidates for confirmation.
The eucharist came under close scrutiny and every effort was made to obliterate any semblance to the Roman Mass. Tables replaced altars and vestments were not to be used. Most importantly the rite was renamed Holy Communion with the effect of denying any power of the priest (minister) to consecrate the bread and wine. Inevitably the Roman explanation of "transubstantiation" was rejected and the theology of the Reformers was adopted as "... more faithful to the teaching of the Bible and the Early Church than the teaching of those who continue to support the Pope".
Edward died in 1553 and Mary his half sister became Queen. Mary I was a Catholic and quickly set about the task of stamping out Protestantism from her realm and initiated a bloody persecution. Pope Julius III (1550-1555), after the death of Edward re-appointed the English Cardinal Reginald Pole as the papal legate to England with "exceptionally wide faculties" required in the turbulence of the day. However the deaths of Pope Julius III, Queen Mary and Cardinal Pole within three years (1555-1558) of each other and the election of the inquisitor, Cardinal Carafa as Paul IV ensured that the English Church would cast off its Catholic affiliation and continue down the path of the reformation and develop a rather unique communion which "...has been enriched by the co-existence within it of three broad traditions, the Evangelical, the Catholic and the Liberal".
Elizabeth I (1558-1603) found herself ruling a country which had deep religious and political divides. Pope Paul IV, the famous Cardinal Carafa, was an authoritarian and ruthless man (a bully) who fresh from the hearings of the Inquisitions was hostile to the Protestants and their cause. He refused to reconvene the Council of Trent which Julius III had suspended in 1552 and preferred a military resolution to the religious revolt in Europe. Naturally, his interaction with Elizabeth became a series of demands and commands, more than any other factor Paul's personality led to Elizabeth's severing the union with Rome which had been so painfully restored by Mary and Cardinal Pole. This final separation from Rome brought a semblance of peace to the English Church after thirty years of bitter sectarianism under successive Popes and Tudor monarchs. A new Church had been established in England with Elizabeth as its supreme head. The Act of Uniformity (1558) required that all people attend Sunday services in Anglican churches. Pius IV (1559-1565) reconvened the Council of Trent but by this time it was too late to salvage unity with the English Church and the reformed Churches of Europe simply because these churches simply did not trust Rome and the role of the Pope was considered as irrelevant to Christian life.
 The petition can be viewed online at www.ipetitions.com/veteofnoconfidence.The petition is a vote of no confidence in Bishop Roche whom they claim is "refusing to listen to the people."
"We object to the planned closure and demolition of so many Catholic Churches in the Diocese of Leeds. We believe this plan to be detrimental to the wider community, and urge the authorities to think again. We have no confidence in the Bishop of Leeds, who is refusing to listen to the people." [Bold/underline emphasis added].
Whatever be Bishop Roche's contribution to the Book of Pell and his skills in the matter of its "quality and rigour;" he would appear to be out of touch with his people and his primary commission of "feeding my lambs and taking care of my sheep" (Jn 21:15-170.)
 The powerful words are: "venerable, compassion, sacrifice, victim, consubstantial and everlasting salvation." Cardinal Pell and Ms Livingstone might well go to eucharist to engage in games of theological scrabble but most Catholics go to participate in the eucharist to share in Jesus' mission of praise of God and service of the least (Mt 25:45). Moreover, the words listed appear to be a theological brainstorming rather than a serious foundation for any adult catechesis. It is claimed that this jumble of adjectives, nouns etc would provide the faithful with a "more accurate" understanding of the eucharistic mystery than the "too colloquial" text of the last forty years. Isaiah expressed the complaint of Yahweh that these people "...served me (God) with their lips but their hearts are far from me" (Is 29:13; Mt 15:8). Worship and prayer is not about words but the heart and the recognition of God's mercy to all. The author of the Imitation of Christ writes that he would "prefer to feel compunction rather than been able to define it."
St Cyprian who is honoured in Eucharistic Prayer 1 (Communicantes et memoriam...) a Roman martyr writes in On the Lord's Prayer # 4-6 writes;
"When we assemble in union with our brothers and sisters and celebrate the holy sacrifice with God's priest...we should not inflate our prayers with a flurry of words ... God listens, not to the voice, but to the heart, and since he reads our thoughts, he does not need to have his attention called by clamour."
Liturgy is simply not catechesis and therefore the words which Cardinal Pell specifies (if he is quoted correctly) should be explained in an adult faith development catechesis not nouns and adjectives sprinkled throughout the liturgical books as a form of theological scrabble for the laity "to chew on." The faithful today, are educated and will not be patronised by any Cardinal or Bishop talking down to them. Orthopraxis not orthodoxy was required by Jesus himself as the hallmark of his disciples "...by their fruits you will know them" (Mt 7:20-21).
 The bishops of the English speaking world, would appear able to"...twice scrutinise and approve" this text yet the same bishops have been unable to make a meaningful statement about sex abuse in the Catholic Church. Recently, A.W. Richard Sipe an American health counsellor who had been a Benedictine monk and priest for 18 years wrote an article, "Sex: Obedience & Disclosure" on National Catholic Reporter, NCR June 01 2010, vps117.advomatic.com/print/18538 that;
Roman Catholic leadership has failed to deal credibly and openly with all human sexuality. The refusal of the Pope and Vatican to enter into serious dialogue about sexuality/celibate agenda has stripped the Church of its moral leadership and credibility and been an essential component in the worldwide Catholic clergy sex abuse crisis.
Sipe provides an insight into the current standing of the Church in the real world in which the Church needs to regain its credibility and the people's trust until such time (irrespective of the number of doctrinally thoughtful missals released) the world is not listening.
 The catechism, To Know, Worship and Love, has a deductive methodology which begins from doctrines and beliefs and tries to relate them to lived life. An inductive methodology, on the other hand, begins with lived life. Jesus always taught by an inductive method and in fact the Synoptic Gospels follow an inductive method as Jesus gradually, reveals himself as the son of God. John begins his Gospel with the Godhead and the pre-existing Son who "becomes flesh and dwelt among us" (Jn 1:14). Inductive methodology is much more suitable for adult catechesis which allows the community to begin from their lived experience. Even children benefit from an inductive methodology which helps them to grow in faith and to own the doctrine presented.
 Livingstone's article states that these "traditional Anglicans are preparing to cross the Tiber" because of a "left lurch" by mainstream Protestants who are ordaining "woman as bishops and gay clergy and questioning long-held doctrines about the resurrection, the virgin birth and salvation..." But had these matters been different would these "traditional Anglicans" even be considering crossing the Tiber?
 While it is obvious that Ms Livingstone believes that it will be a simple matter for these "traditional Anglicans" to cross the Tiber and "retain their own traditional liturgies." That is simply not possible. Pope Paul IV (1467-1559) became Pope in 1555 and whose militaristic approach to the Reformers was responsible for the schism between the English Church and Rome following the deaths of Queen Mary I and Cardinal Pole in 1558. See Richard P. McBrien (1997), Lives of the popes, San Francisco Ca: Harper Collins Publishers, p 284-285. Indeed, St Ignatius Loyola (founder of the Jesuits) had experienced Cardinal Carafa's (later Paul IV) intransigence in Venice in 1537. Ignatius declared that "every bone in my body trembles at the news of Carafa's election." Quoted by Roger Collins (2009), Keepers of the keys of heaven: A history of the papacy, London UK: Phoenix Paperbacks, p 362. Researching the papacy reads like a mixture of Agatha Christie and Mills &Boon plots. In the late nineteenth century, the encyclical of Pope Leo XIII (1896), Apostolicae Curae (AC), On the nullity of Anglican Orders) became something of a "definitive" statement of Rome's position on Anglican Orders. Leo argues that after the separation from Rome the Anglican clergy fell into two classes those who were ordained prior to the split with Rome and those "initiated" to the Edwardine Ordinal (Edward VI) and these orders were "null" (AC# 9). In paragraphs # 22-30, Leo explains that defective form (words said) and defective intention (of ordaining prelate) vitiate or nullify the orders.
The Answer of the Archbishops of England to the Apostolic letter of Pope Leo XIII (Saepius officio (SO), 1897) presents a defence of its own sacramental practice stressing that baptism alone to be "quite certain both in its form and its matter" #IX and pointing out that there were early Roman ordinals which did not use the words or actions which Leo required for validity but were none the less considered as conferring valid orders.
After reading these documents, it is not possible to arrive at a definitive answer with much riding on the scholastic categories of matter, form and intention with their servere limitations. Agreement on the validity of Anglican orders is essential if the ministers of these "traditional Anglicans" are not to be re-ordained during their crossing the Tiber. Secondly, as Leo's letter makes clear that the English Church is to be considered part of the Roman Rite (AC #1, 9), it could not be considered a Uniate Rite. The Eastern Churches which have joined Rome are considered Uniate Rites as the Churches of E. Europe, N. Africa, or SW Asia"acknowledging the supremacy of the Pope but retaining their own liturgy etc" The Australian Pocket Oxford Dictionary, p 1190 . But this definition of Uniate could hardly be applied to the "traditional Anglican parishes" contemplating "crossing the Tiber." These "traditional Anglican parishes" would become incorporated into the existing English Catholic Church if this or a similar process did not occur then chaos would rule. One English Catholic Church would have at least two (possibly more) rites some following Pell's missal while others "retained their own traditional liturgies." Ms Livingstone cannot be serious. Such an outcome would not only undermine the work of Cardinal Pell, Bishop Roche and Vox Clara but could well lead to legal action in English courts on the basis of discrimination. Certainly, the people of Leeds have already a dissatisfaction with Bishop Roche and his tactics.
 Transubstantiation is certainly the explanation of real change in the bread and wine in the Book of Pell which all English speaking Catholics will be required to use perhaps from Pentecost Sunday 2011 while the "traditional Anglicans" would be free to retain their own liturgies. The understanding of Jesus' presence in the Anglican Church is more open following in some groups Luther's "consubstantiality" which claimed that there was not any real change to the substance of the bread and wine but it continued to exist with (con= cum Latin with) the presence of Jesus. Other Anglican groups (more evangelical) tend to understand the gifts of bread and wine as representing Jesus' body and blood more in line with the explanation of Zwingli and Calvin.
 From Nicholas V (1447-1455) to Julius II (1503-1513) the extravagance and immoral lifestyle of the papacy stood in stark contrast to the teaching and values of Jesus. Leo X (1513-1521) was the last of the Renaissance popes and was certainly not the man to reform the Church and opposed any attempts to alter the status quo. In 1518, Henry VIII the young King of England and Thomas More wrote Declaration of the seven sacraments against Martin Luther. Leo X rewarded Henry bestowing on him the title, Fidei Defensor (Defender of the Faith) in 1521. However by 1529 Henry found himself at odds with Leo's successor, Pope Clement VII who refused to annul Henry's marriage to Catherine of Aragon. Besides the problems surrounding the annulment; there was the obvious advantage if the monarch was both head of state and the Church. Finally, there was the growing power of Spain in Europe. Christopher Columbus in 1492 had discovered the new World and had placed the riches of the Americas at the disposal of the Spanish crown. Even the popes were Spanish Callistus III (1455-1458) and his nephew, Alexander VI (1492-1503). The scramble of the European powers to colonise the new world created military conflicts at home and the exploitations of imperialism abroad, under the guise of Christianity (Christendom). Later the religious and military disputes of Europe were exported into the new world and colonisation 1492-1735.) See Sylvia Corner (1973), Captain Cook and Australia, Sydney NSW: V.C.N. Blight Government Printer, p 9-14. The author suggests that Australia may well have been visited by Portuguese under Meneses in 1527 some two hundred years before Cook in 1770. Even at the time of the Reformation in Europe Spain and Portugal were engaged in world discovery and exploration.
 Edward VI had been educated as a Protestant and in the works of the Reformation. His uncle was also a Protestant and promoted the teachings of the European Reformers. See "The Tudors—Edward VI—Protestantism" www.historyonthenet.com/Tudors/edward_protestantism.htm.
 The doctrine of predestination which teaches that God has determined some people for heaven and others for damnation also found its way into the English Church at this time. In a rudimentary form it is present in the thought of Augustine but he never taught it. At the Reformation it was resurrected especially in the thought of Calvin. Luther stressed that justification came through faith alone and that the person could not "do good works." He had his famous contrast between the Law and the Gospel. The Law was based on good works but the Gospel was God's free gift of justification in Christ. The person always remained "simul iustus et peccator" or "at once just and sinner." Therefore the reformers were opposed to prayers for the dead and especially to indulgences promoted by Julius II (1503-1513) and Leo X (1513-1521) as a means of supporting their building programs. The reformers rejected the papal claim that an indulgence could attach to a good work toward the person's salvation. The real problem with predestination is that it denies free will.
 See "The History of the Church of England" www.cofe.anglican.org/about/history/.
 See www.tudorplace.com.ar/Bios/ReginaldPole(Cardinal).htm, Cardinal Reginald Pole was not an ordained priest when Julius III appointed him as legate to England. Pole was ordained priest on 20th March 1557 and bishop two (2) days later. Pole replaced Archbishop Cranmer as the Archbishop of Canterbury. However in April 1557, his old nemesis Cardinal Giovanni Pietro Carafa now Paul IV (1555-1559) withdrew all his "legatine powers." Paul recalled Pole to Rome to stand serious charges to the effect that Pole was really a Lutheran. Paul was paranoid. He refused to reconvene the Council of Trent preferring to take military measures against the Protestants than to negotiate. He had even imprisoned Cardinal Giovanni Morone as a heretic and before his death (1559), he authored an Apostolic Constitution, "Cum ex Apostolatus Officio," specifically, to enshrine in Church Law that "no manifest heretic can lawfully hold the Office of St Peter." Paul's intention was to assure that the popular Cardinal Morone did not become his successor. See en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cum_ex_Apostolatus_Officio, the full text of this document can be found online at www.mostholyfamilymonastery.com/cum_ex.html Richard McBrien (2000), Lives of the Popes, San Francisco Ca: Harper, p.  "...upon the death of Queen Mary I of England in 1558 he (Paul) insisted on the restitution of all church properties and demanded that Queen Elizabeth I submit all of her claims to him. The fortunes of Protestantism in England were immeasurably aided by the pope's behavior." Cardinal Pole did not comply with the pope's demand that he return to Rome because Queen Mary did not give Pole the papal brief. Also, Cardinal Pole died four days after the Queen (1558) and so was saved from the fury of a ruthless Pope. See www.archelaos.com/popes/details.aspx?id=262 After Paul's death (1559), there was an outburst of violence in Rome against this most unpopular and hated Pope and his family. Roman mobs attacked the palace of the Inquisition and freed the inmates. Pius IV (1559-1565) immediately re-convened the Council of Trent and reversed many of Paul's policies. However this was all too late for any serious reconciliation between Rome and England and the Catholic hierarchy in England would not be restored until 1843 almost three hundred years later. Leo XIII (1878-1903) would return to the issue of the validity of Anglican orders in 1896. However the ensuring review failed to provide any real breakthroughs on this rather vexatious matter.
 See www.cofe.aanglican.org/about/history/ p 2.
 It is significant that the Holy Communion which replaced the Roman Mass adopted the Lutheran understanding of the eucharistic presence of Jesus as "consubstantial" or that Jesus was present with the bread and wine. This was in contra distinction t the Council of Trent which used the term, "transubstantiation," indicating that through the power of the priest that the bread and wine were changed into the body and blood of Christ. Or that after the consecration of the mass there were only the "appearances" of bread and wine the substantial reality was Jesus. The clergy were also ordered that they should not wear the surplice or any other Catholic vestments. The celebration was to be in English and the clergy could marry.
 See en.wikipedia.org/wiki/English_Reformation
Collins, R., (2009), Keepers of the keys of Heaven, London UK: Phoenix Paperbacks.
Corner, S.,(1973), Captain Cook and Australia, Sydney NSW: V.C.N. Blight, Government
Frowde, H., The Book of Common Prayer, London UK: Oxford University Press
McBrien, R., (2000), Lives of the Popes, San Francisco Ca: Harper.
McDowell, B.,(1991), Inside the Vatican, Washington DC: National Geographic Society.
Mesiti, P., (1997), Attitudes and attitudes: The dynamics of 21st century leadership, Baulkham Hills NSW: Pat Mesiti Ministries Inc.
Micklethwait, J&A. Wooldridge, (2009), God is back: How the global rise of faith is changing the world, New York NY: Penguin Books.
Morton, S., (1995), China: Its history and culture, New York NY: National Geographic Society.
Rigert, J., (2008), An Irish tragedy: How sex abuse by Irish priests helped cripple the Catholic Church, Baltimore Md: Crossland Press.
Wilson, G.,(2008), Clericalism: The death of priesthood, Collegeville Mn: Liturgical Press.
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Fr Daniel Donovan is a former lecturer in religious education at ACU (Australian Catholic University).
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